Dürfen Schülerinnen und Schüler Laptops, Tablets oder Smartphones in Prüfungssituationen nutzen? Und wenn ja, dürfen sie damit ins grenzenlose Internet? Über diese Fragen gibt es eine kontroverse Debatte. So wagte Niedersachen unlängst einen zaghaften Vorstoß mit Tablets im eingeschränkten Prüfungsmodus oder Jürgen Handke fordert den generellen Einsatz von Google in Klausuren. Auf der anderen Seite stellen sich die ganz grundlegende Fragen, was Lerndende dann überhaupt noch ‚wissen‘ müssen, wie Prüfungen dann aussehen müssten oder ob mit der Internetnutzung in Prüfungen nicht auch ein Verlust wichtiger Fähigkeiten einhergeht.
In Dänemark sieht die Debatte im Vergleich zu Deutschland etwas anders aus, weil man dort schon vor einigen Jahren begann die Prüfungsformate anzupassen. Da man im Internet nur wenig Informationen auf Englisch zum aktuellen Stand in Dänemark erhält – wie ich in einer Unterhaltung mit damianduchamps festgestellt hatte -, habe ich das dänische Bildungsministerium angeschrieben. Frederik Kolind war so nett, dass ich seine Antwort hier veröffentlichen darf. Zur durchgeführten Evaluation kann er leider nicht viel sagen, weil dafür eine andere Stelle zuständig ist. Dafür gibt er einen guten Überblick zum aktuellen Stand. Vielleicht für die einen oder die anderen interessant. Hier Kolinds zentrale Begründung:
„The interest in applying the internet in exams has emerged in response to how the internet has come to play an important role in terms of how students work in the classroom on a daily basis. The ability to find, assess and apply online-information is part of the curriculum in many subjects, and the exams are to enable a thorough evaluation of these skills.“
Und nun die ganze E-Mail:
Dear Philip Stade
Thank you for your interest in the use of ICT during examination.
Unfortunately the evaluation you are referring to is only available in Danish. Nevertheless, I have attached it.
In terms of the use of ICT during examinations in the upper secondary school system I would highlight two trends in Denmark.
Digitization of written exams
From 2016 – 2018 all written exams are digitized in the upper secondary school system. When the digitization is completed in 2018 all exam-papers will be uploaded to a website (netprøver.dk) instead of being handed in in person.
The use of internet as an academic resource during exams
In Denmark students in the upper secondary education programs can have access to the internet during some of the written exams (see below).
Most of the exams with internet access are optional meaning that the schools may choose between the traditional written exam and the new exam with internet-access as an academic resource.
Across all upper secondary education programs four of the 21 exams with internet access as an academic resource are compulsory. Most students will complete only one or a few exams with internet access.
As you seem to be aware of, internet access during exams in the upper-secondary school system was first launched as a pilot-project among 15 schools from 2008 – 2010. As part of the project students were granted internet-access as an academic resource during written exams in six subjects: Three in the general upper secondary program (Danish, mathematics and social-science) and three in the higher commercial and technical upper secondary programs (marketing, business economics and international economics)
The evaluation (which I have attached) was positive and in continuation of this, it was decided to introduce this type of exam in upper secondary education on a compulsory basis in four written exams in Danish and English in the higher commercial and technical upper secondary programs (hhx and htx) .Furthermore, it was decided to introduce optional digital exams with internet-access as an academic resource in several subjects.
At present the following subjects have digital written examinations where access to the internet is allowed. I have highlighted the four exams where internet-access is compulsory.
|German continued level||A||stx|
|French Intermediate Level||A||hhx|
|German continued level||A||hhx|
|French Intermediate Level||A||stx|
Please note that the abbreviations in the third column indicate which of the educational programmes have this specific form of examination. The letters A and B indicate the level of the subject, A being the highest in this part of the Danish educational system. (The abbreviations (hf, htx, hhx and stx) refer to the four upper secondary education programmes in Denmark: the gymnasium (stx),the Higher Prepatory Examination (hf), the Higher Commercial Examination Programme (hhx), the Higher Techinal Examination Programme (Htx).
All Upper Secondary schools in Denmark have the possibility of using internet during exams in these subjects (except of course when the exam is compulsory). In the summer-term of 2017 33.947 students across 176 schools will be completing one or more digital exams with internet-access as an academic resource.
The interest in applying the internet in exams has emerged in response to how the internet has come to play an important role in terms of how students work in the classroom on a daily basis. The ability to find, assess and apply online-information is part of the curriculum in many subjects, and the exams are to enable a thorough evaluation of these skills.
[…] I hope you find the information above helpful in your work.
Danish Ministry of Education
National Agency for Education and Quality
Frederiksholms Kanal 26
1220 Copenhagen K